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imageคอปเปอร์ซัลเฟตเป็นสารประกอบของทองแดง หรือ copper ในภาษาอังกฤษ มีที่ใช้กว้างขวางมาก นับย้อนไปถึงยุคอารยธรรมโบราณปรากฎหลักฐานทางโบราณคดีว่าชาวอียิปต์โบราณใช้คอปเปอร์ซัลเฟตเป็นสีย้อม ปัจจุบันก็ยังใช้กันอยู่ นอกจากนี้สมัยกรีกโบราณยังใช้เป็นยาโรคปอดอีกด้วย

ราวคริสต์ศตวรรษที่ 18 มีการนำสารทองแดงไปใช้ชุบเมล็ดข้าวสาลีเพื่อป้องกันเชื้อรา และยังนำไปใช้รักษาเนื้อไม้ ทั้งนี้สืบเนื่องจากการค้นพบที่สำคัญคือ พบว่าสารละลายคอปเปอร์ซัลเฟตผสมปูนขาวกับน้ำสามารถป้องกันโรคราน้ำค้างในไร่องุ่นได้ นับแต่นั้นมาก็มีการใช้น้ำยาสูตรนี้ที่มีชื่อว่าบอร์โด (Bordeaux) กระจายทั่วไปในการเกษตรกรรม นอกจากป้องกันเชื้อราได้แล้ว
ยังป้องกันแบคทีเรียได้อีกหลายชนิดด้วย (อ้างอิงจาก Worthing, C. R., ed. 1983. The pesticide manual: A world compendium. Croydon, England: The British Crop Protection Council.) ยังมีการใช้สารคอปเปอร์ซัลเฟตในอุตสาหกรรมชุบ ใช้ป้องกันตะไคร่และสาหร่ายในแหล่งน้ำหรือสระว่ายน้ำกันอย่างแพร่หลายในปัจจุบัน

พิษภัยของสารประกอบคอปเปอร์ โดยทั่วไปพิษภัยของสารประกอบคอปเปอร์ไม่รุนแรงเท่าสารประกอบของตะกั่วและปรอท อย่างไรก็ดีการใช้ก็ยังต้องระมัดระวังอย่าให้ถูกผิวหนัง หรือหายใจเอาฝุ่นที่ฟุ้งกระจายเข้าไป การกลืนกินทำให้ปวดท้องรุนแรงอาเจียนทันที จะมีเหงื่อออกมากและอาจช็อคได้ ที่พบเป็นปัญหาได้บ่อยๆ คือกระเด็นเข้าตา จะทำให้ผู้ป่วยมีอาการแสบตาอย่างรุนแรงและน้ำตาไหลพราก กรณีถูกผิวหนังมักมีอาการปวดแสบปวดร้อนและปรากฎตุ่มพองหรือผื่นผิวหนังอักเสบตามมาในภายหลัง

ข้อมูลสำหรับแพทย์และบุคลากรทางการแพทย์*

image

TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS

Copper is one of 26 essential trace elements occurring naturally in plant and animal tissue. The usual routes by which humans receive toxic exposure to copper sulfate are through skin or eye contact, as well as by inhalation of powders and dusts. Copper sulfate is a strong irritant.

imageCopper sulfate is only moderately toxic upon acute oral exposure. There have been reports of human suicide resulting from the ingestion of gram quantities of this material. The lowest dose of copper sulfate that has been toxic when ingested by humans is 11 mg/kg. Ingestion of copper sulfate is often not toxic because vomiting is automatically triggered by its irritating effect on the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms are severe, however, if copper sulfate is retained in the stomach, as in the unconscious victim. Some of the signs of poisoning which occurred after 1-12 grams of copper sulfate was swallowed include a metallic taste in the mouth, burning pain in the chest and abdomen, intense nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, sweating, shock, discontinued urination leading to yellowing of the skin. Injury to the brain, liver, kidneys and stomach and intestinal linings may also occur in copper sulfate poisoning.

imageCopper sulfate can be corrosive to the skin and eyes. It is readily absorbed through the skin and can produce a burning pain, along with the same severe symptoms of poisoning from ingestion. Skin contact may result in itching or eczema. It is considered a skin sensitizer and can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Eye contact with this material can cause: conjunctivitis, inflammation of the eyelid lining, excess fluid buildup in the eyelid; cornea tissue deterioration due to breaks, or ulceration, in the eye's mucous membrane; and clouding of the cornea.

The amount of copper sulfate that is lethal to one-half (50%) of experimental animals fed the material is referred to as its acute oral lethal dose fifty, or LD50. The LD50 for copper sulfate is 30 mg/kg in rats. Ingestion by animals of three ounces of a 1% solution of copper sulfate will produce extreme inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, with symptoms of abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. When copper sulfate is given intravenously, or injected into the vein, as little as 2 mg/kg copper sulfate is lethal to guinea pigs; and 4 mg/kg is lethal to rabbits.

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